MOLECULAR GENETIC MECHANISMS OF THE PATHOGENESIS OF COLORECTAL CANCER
Keywords:polyps, chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability
A polyp is a benign epithelial tumor, which is a mass on a pedicle or broad base that rises above the mucous membrane. The aim of the work was to study the molecular genetic mechanisms of the pathogenesis of rectal polyps. The study was carried out theoretically, through the analysis of scientific articles related to the pathogenesis of colon polyps, published in the latest issues of well-known scientific journals. As a result of the study, it was established that in the pathogenesis of rectal polyps, 2 main mechanisms can be distinguished: chromosomal instability and microsatellite instability. Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a pathogenetic pathway, the implementation of which consists in a violation of suppressive mechanisms. This pathway of carcinogenesis includes both activation and inactivation of the following genes: APC, KRAS, BRAF, SMAD2 / 4 (DCC), p53. The second mechanism for the development of rectal polyps is associated with the development of microsatellite instability. Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a phenotype characterized by an increased likelihood of mutations occurring as a result of disruption of the unpaired DNA base repair system. The following genes belong to the repair system: MSH2, MSH6, MSH3, MLH1, PMS2. This mechanism is associated with the inactivation of genes of the DNA repair system (MisMatch Repair system - MMR). Thus, the development of rectal polyps is a multistage polyetiological process, in the development of which a number of genes play a primary role, mutations of which lead to the accumulation of these deviations, the differentiation of epithelial cells.
L. O.Gucol, I. E. Egorova, S. F. Nepomnyashchih, L. N. Minakina, M. V. YAs'ko. Reparaciya nesparennyh osnovanij i petel' delecii/vstavki DNK u eukariot. Byulleten' VSNC SO RAMN, 2016, tom 1, №3 (109), chast' 1; s.72-76.
O. I. Kit, D. I. Vodolazhskij. Molekulyarnaya biologiya kolorektal'nogo raka v klinicheskoj praktike // Molekulyarnaya biologiya, 2015, tom 49, № 4, s. 531-540.
E. A. Lapteva, I. V. Kozlova, YU. N. Myalina, A. L. Pahomova. Polipy tolstoj kishki: epidemiologiya, faktory riska, kriterii diagnostiki, taktiki vedeniya (obzor) // Saratovskij nauchno-medicinskij zhurnal. 2013. T. 9, № 2. S. 252-259.
D. M. Pasevich, S. A. Sushkov, V. M. Semenov. Molekulyarno-geneticheskie aspekty zlokachestvennyh novoobrazovanij tolstoj kishki. Novosti hirurgii, tom 24, 2016: 184-191.
M. YU. Fedyanin, A. A. Tryakin, S. A. Tyulyandin. Rol' mikrosatellitnoj nestabil'nosti pri rake tolstoj kishki. Onkologicheskaya koloproktologiya 3, 2012. S. 19-24.
A. S. Cukanov, YU. A. SHelygin, D. A. Semenov, D. YU. Pikunov, A. V. Polyakov. Sindrom Lincha. Sovremennoe sostoyanie problemy. Nauchnye obzory. S. 11-18.
Shussman N, Wexner SD. Colorectal polyps and polyposis syndromes. Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf). 2014;2(1):1-15.
Coen Laurens Klos, Сехар Дхармараджан. Polyp Genetics. Clin Colon Rectal Surg 2016; 29(04): 289-295.
G. M. Butrovich, E. D. Mirlina, I. G. Khabarovsk, O. A. Vostryukhina. Non-invasive diagnosis of colorectal cancer: molecular genetic analysis of fecal DNA. Educational notes in medical University they. I. p. Pavlov Academy, volume 21, n. 3-2014.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
A work licensed in this way allows the following:
1. The freedom to use and perform the work: The licensee must be allowed to make any use, private or public, of the work.
2. The freedom to study the work and apply the information: The licensee must be allowed to examine the work and to use the knowledge gained from the work in any way. The license may not, for example, restrict "reverse engineering."
2. The freedom to redistribute copies: Copies may be sold, swapped or given away for free, in the same form as the original.